Chapter 14
OUTDOOR LIGHTINGlinklink

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10-14-1: PURPOSE AND INTENT:
10-14-2: CONFORMANCE WITH APPLICABLE CODES:
10-14-3: DEFINITIONS:
10-14-4: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS:
10-14-5: DESIGN STANDARDS:
10-14-6: PROHIBITIONS:
10-14-7: EXEMPTIONS:
10-14-8: PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE:

10-14-1: PURPOSE AND INTENT:linklink


A. The purpose of this chapter is to require the protection of our dark skies. It establishes procedures and standards that minimize light pollution, reduce glare and light trespass, and conserve energy and resources by controlling the artificial illuminating devices emitting rays into the night sky which have a detrimental effect on the rural atmosphere, astronomical observations, or which would otherwise be offensive to neighboring and nearby properties.


B. The intent of these lighting requirements is to preserve the low light level conditions that are inherently characteristic of the rural lifestyle. The objective is to allow only the quantity and level of lighting necessary for safety, security and the enjoyment of outdoor living while protecting against direct glare and excessive lighting, protecting the ability to view the night sky, and preventing light trespass. (Ord. 03-2005, 9-6-2005)

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10-14-2: CONFORMANCE WITH APPLICABLE CODES:linklink


A. All outdoor artificial illuminating devices (luminaires) shall be installed and utilized in conformance with the provisions of this chapter, and all other ordinances or building codes of the town of Parker. The town of Parker shall be considered to be an environmental zone E1 as defined by the CIE and the IESNA.


B. Where any provisions of the Arizona state statutes, or any federal law, or any companion ordinance conflicts with the requirements of these outdoor lighting provisions the most restrictive shall govern.


C. The provisions of this chapter are not intended to promote the use of any one light source, material, or method of installation. This chapter does, however, prohibit certain light sources. The town may consider any state of the art technology, which is consistent with the intent of this title, as new lighting technology develops which is useful in reducing light above the horizontal plane. (Ord. 03-2005, 9-6-2005)

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10-14-3: DEFINITIONS:linklink

For the purpose of this chapter the following terms shall have the following definitions:

CIE: Commission Internationale de l-Éclairage.

EYE ILLUMINANCE: The illuminance level (lux/foot-candle) measured at the eye in a plane perpendicular to the line of sight when measured from a point sixty six inches (66") above grade.

FOOT-CANDLE (fc): A unit of illuminance of equal to 1 lm/ft2 (lumen/square foot) or 10.76 lx (lux).

FOSSIL FUEL LIGHT: Light produced directly or indirectly by the combustion of natural gas or other utility type fossil fuels.

FULLY SHIELDED (FULL CUTOFF): A fixture shielded with an opaque material so that light rays emitted by the fixture, either directly from the lamp or indirectly from the fixture, are projected only below a horizontal plane running through the lowest point on the fixture where light is emitted.

IESNA: Illuminating Engineering Society of North America.

INSTALLED: The initial installation of outdoor light fixtures, defined herein, on or after the effective date of this chapter.

LUMENS: The standard international (SI) unit of luminous flux.

LUMINAIRE (LIGHT FIXTURE): A complete lighting unit consisting of a lamp or lamps and ballast(s) (when applicable) together with the parts designed to distribute the light, position and protect the lamps, to connect the lamps to the power supply for:

A. Buildings, structures, and architectural features.

B. Recreational areas.

C. Parking lot lighting.

D. Landscape lighting.

E. Signage (advertising or others).

F. Street lighting.

G. Building overhangs and open canopies.

H. Product display area lighting.

I. Walkways.

J. Horse arenas, corrals and animal containment areas.

OPAQUE: Impervious to the passage of light and not reflecting light.

PARTIALLY SHIELDED (PARTIAL CUTOFF): A fixture that allows light rays to be emitted up and down and shielded with an opaque material in such a manner to prevent the bulb from being seen.

SAFETY LIGHTING: Low level lighting used to illuminate vehicular and pedestrian circulation.

SECURITY LIGHTING: Lighting that is fully shielded that is intended to provide bright illumination during emergency situations only.

SPILL LIGHT: The amount of light that illuminates beyond the range or primary area that the fixture is intended to light.

TRANSLUCENT: Admitting and diffusing light so that objects and the light source beyond cannot be clearly perceived.

TRESPASS LIGHTING: Spill light that encroaches onto neighboring properties.

VISUAL ENJOYMENT LIGHTING: Lighting intended to illuminate outdoor living areas. (Ord. 03-2005, 9-6-2005)

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10-14-4: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS:linklink


A. Shielding: All outdoor light fixtures, except those exempt from this chapter, shall be fully shielded as required in table 7 of this section. Light sources that must be shielded shall be shielded in a manner that the bulb or light source from the fixture is not visible from an adjoining property or from the street view when viewed horizontally to the fixture.


B. Building And Structures: All lighting fixtures for buildings, structures and canopies shall adhere to the following requirements:

1. All building mounted light fixtures shall be fully shielded, except residential dwellings may install partially shielded light fixtures such as sconces but only at the garage and primary entryway. The application of lighting to architectural features, such as, but not limited to, building facade lighting, shall be minimized with all light directed downward away from adjacent lots, streets, and open spaces.

2. Exterior fixtures shall be mounted in or on a building wall not to exceed eight feet (8') above finished grade and shielded in such a manner as to avoid creating concentrated light (hot spots) on the structures to which they are mounted.

3. In commercial districts, within a fifteen foot (15') radius of the entry door, there shall be some type of lighting to distinguish the building entrance.

4. Overhead lighting used to light building overhangs and open canopies shall be fully recessed within the overhang or canopy. The maximum lighting intensity (eye illumination levels) under the canopy shall be no greater than 2.0 lux (0.2 fc) when measured directly under the overhang or canopy or greater than 1.0 lux (0.10 fc) when measured at the property line.


C. Security Lighting: If elected, security lighting may be permitted provided the following:

1. In residential zoning districts, building or wall mounted fixtures are fully shielded and shall not exceed a mounting height of ten feet (10'). Within the commercial and industrial zoning districts, building or wall mounted fixtures are fully shielded and shall not exceed a mounting height of twelve feet (12') or a height equal to one-third (1/3) the height of the building wall on which they are mounted, whichever is greater, except that a fully shielded light fixture may be mounted above a bay door. The maximum height of lighting standards (poles) used for security purposes, excluding parking lot lighting, shall be twelve feet (12').

2. Motion sensor/detector light fixtures that are fully shielded are the preferred type for security lighting.

3. In residential zoning districts security lighting must be controlled separately from all other lighting with the security lights being on timers that regulate their operation time to a maximum of ten (10) minutes and limited to lamps with a maximum of seven hundred fifty (750) lumens.


D. Parking Area Lighting: The town requires the lighting of designated parking areas. The use of short bollard style shielded light fixtures may be considered in lieu of overhead lighting for parking lot lighting in residential neighborhoods or residentially zoned property. Parking lot lighting requirements shall be as follows:

1. Within the commercial and industrial zoning districts the maximum lighting intensity (eye illumination levels) of the parking areas shall be 2.0 lux (0.20 fc), as measured within the designated parking area and at the property line. However, if the commercial or industrial zoning district abuts a residential zoning district the maximum lighting intensity (eye illumination levels) in the parking area shall be 1.0 lux (0.10 fc) measured at the property line.

2. Within the C-2 commercial and the I-1 and I-2 industrial zoning districts the maximum height of parking area lighting standards (poles) shall be twenty feet (20') within the interior of the parking area and sixteen feet (16') at or along the perimeter of the parking area. Within the OT and C-1 zoning districts, or if the parking area abuts a residential zoning district, the maximum height of the lighting standards (poles) shall be sixteen feet (16') within the interior of the parking area and twelve feet (12') at or along the perimeter of the parking area.

3. All parking area lighting, serving commercial businesses, shall be turned off one-half (1/2) hour after the close of the business that the parking area serves or as required for the safety of the employees leaving the business.

4. Within the multiple residence zoning districts, lighting standards (poles) within the parking areas shall be limited to a maximum height of twelve feet (12'). Motion sensor/detector light fixtures are encouraged to be placed under the parking shade canopy to provide both security and parking area lighting.


E. Outdoor Signage: All exterior lighting fixtures used to externally illuminate an outdoor advertising sign shall be mounted on the top of the sign structure, shall be fully shielded and directed downward.


F. Light Trespass: All outdoor light fixtures shall be directed downward and shall be fully shielded. Outdoor light fixtures shall be directed away from any residential property and shall not detract from driver visibility on adjacent streets. Spill light from any fixture shall be minimized and shall not spill beyond the property line on which the fixture is located.


G. Preferred Light Source: Low pressure sodium lamps are the preferred light source for minimizing adverse effects on astronomical observations. However, other light sources as outlined in table 7 of this section are permitted.


H. Ambient And Landscape Lighting: If desired, ambience lighting may be permitted provided the following:

1. Short bollard style partially shielded light fixtures or low wattage string lighting of specimen trees is preferred to that of building mounted lighting.

2. The maximum lighting intensity (eye illumination levels) of ambience lighting should not exceed 0.5 lux (0.05 fc).

3. All outdoor ambience lighting fixtures shall be turned off one-half (1/2) hour after the close of the business or as required for the safety of the employees leaving the business.


I. Recreational Facilities:

1. Lighting of outdoor recreational facilities, public or private, shall be turned off one-half (1/2) hour after the conclusion of the recreational or sporting event or as required for the safety of the employees leaving the facility and shall comply fully with all regulations of this chapter.

TABLE 7
REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIELDING

Fixture Lamp Type   Shielding5   /   Filtering1  
 
Low pressure sodium2   Partially   /   None  
High pressure sodium   Fully   /   None  
Metal halide/warm halide7   Fully1,7   /   Yes1  
Fluorescent   Fully3   /   Yes3  
Quartz4   Fully   /   None  
Incandescent, greater than 75 watts   Fully   /   None  
Incandescent, 75 watts or less   Partially   /   None  
Fossil fuel   None   /   None  
Glass tubes filled with neon, argon,
  krypton6  
None   /   None  
Other lamp types   As approved by the town of Parker  


Notes:
1."Filtered" means a light fixture that has glass, acrylic, or translucent enclosures of the light source satisfy these filter requirements (quartz glass does not meet this requirement).
2.This is a preferable lamp type to minimize undesirable light into the night sky affecting astronomical observations.
3.Warm, white and natural lamps are preferred to minimize detrimental effects.
4.For the purpose of this title, quartz lamps (quartz halogens) shall not be considered an incandescent light source.
5.Or current IESNA guidelines, whichever is more restrictive.
6.Permitted only in commercial zoning districts; prohibited in all residential zones.
7.Metal halide lighting used for display purposes shall not be used for security lighting after 11:00 P.M. Metal halide lamps shall be installed only in enclosed luminaires.

(Ord. 03-2005, 9-6-2005)
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10-14-5: DESIGN STANDARDS:linklink


A. All light fixtures shall be "fully shielded" fixtures that keep light from going uselessly up or sideways (greater than 90 degrees) becoming nuisance lighting to neighbor, creating "hot spots" on the structures to which they are mounted, and light pollution to the neighborhood and community. Recessed lights in exterior soffits, eaves, or ceilings shall have a forty five degree (45°) cutoff.


B. Fixtures shall be directed downward and properly aimed on the targeted areas to maximize their effectiveness and minimize the total number of lighting fixtures.


C. The following illustrations exemplify the more basic styles of lighting fixtures and are for illustrative purposes only. Fixtures and/or fixtures similar to those labeled as prohibited are prohibited by this title.







(Ord. 03-2005, 9-6-2005)
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10-14-6: PROHIBITIONS:linklink


A. Searchlights: The operation of searchlights for advertising purposes is prohibited.


B. Light Standards (Poles): The installation of poles over twenty feet (20') in height and/or having more than two (2) light fixtures per pole, except for recreational fields.


C. Mercury Vapor And Quartz Halogen: The installation of mercury vapor or quartz halogen fixtures is prohibited. Existing mercury vapor and quartz halogen fixtures shall be removed and replaced with compliant lighting fixtures.


D. Signage: Bottom mounted outdoor light fixtures for any advertising sign lighting is prohibited.


E. Security Lighting: Dusk to dawn lights are prohibited. Unshielded wall pack type fixtures are prohibited.


F. Landscaping: Unshielded floodlight or spotlight fixtures are prohibited.


G. Floodlighting: Building mounted floodlights used for area lighting and/or yard security lighting is prohibited unless the floodlight fixture is fully shielded, directed downward, and does not cause or create spill lighting.


H. Temporary Lighting: Any temporary lighting that violates the provisions of this chapter. (Ord. 03-2005, 9-6-2005)

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10-14-7: EXEMPTIONS:linklink


A. Fossil Fuel Light (Gas): Lighting produced by the combustion of natural gas or other utility type fossil fuels is exempt. (This does not exempt lighting produced indirectly from combustion of natural gas or other utility type fossil fuels, such as through the use of electricity to produce lighting.)


B. Federal, State, And Town Facilities: Those facilities and lands owned, operated or protected by the U.S. federal government, state, or the town are exempted by law from all requirements of this chapter. Voluntary compliance with the intent of this chapter at those facilities is strongly encouraged.


C. Holiday Lights: Low wattage outdoor lighting fixtures for traditional holiday decorations, except for floodlights or spotlights.


D. Landscape Lighting: Landscape accent lighting consisting of low voltage light fixtures and/or incandescent bulbs under thirty five (35) watts are exempt provided they are shielded. (Ord. 03-2005, 9-6-2005)

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10-14-8: PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE:linklink


A. Time Limitations: When an application for a change in use, an expansion, modification, or structural alteration to a building or site, that has existing legal nonconforming outdoor lighting, is submitted to the town, all exterior lighting fixtures shall be brought into conformance with the provisions of this chapter at the time of permit issuance.


B. Application:

1. Any individual applying for a building or use permit under the town regulations intending to install outdoor lighting fixtures shall, as a part of said application, submit evidence that the proposed lighting will comply with this chapter.

2. All other individuals intending to install outdoor lighting fixtures shall submit an application to the building department providing evidence that the proposed work will comply with this chapter. Landscape lighting or decorative lighting consisting of low voltage light fixtures and/or incandescent bulbs under thirty five (35) watts may be exempt from the requirements of this subsection B2.


C. Contents Of Application: The application shall contain, but shall not necessarily be limited to, the following information:

1. Plans indicating the proposed luminaire location on the building and the site (if applicable), and the type of illuminating devices, fixtures, lamps, supports, other devices, the aiming angles and a statement of the proposed hours when the luminaires will be on and when they will be extinguished.

2. Manufacturer's catalog cut sheets and drawings that describe the illuminating devices, fixtures, lamps, lumen outputs and wattages, supports, and other devices, etc.

3. For commercial and industrial uses and for all lighted parking lots a photometric study that includes a lux/foot-candle grid that demonstrates adequate intensities and uniformity as well as the maximum lighting intensity (eye illumination levels) measured at the property lines.


D. Issuance Of Permit: Upon compliance with the requirements of this chapter, the building department shall issue a permit for installation of the outdoor lighting fixtures, to be installed per the approved application. In the event the application is part of a building permit application, the issuance of the building permit will be granted if the applicant is in compliance with this chapter as well as other pertinent laws and regulations.


E. Amendment To Permit: Should the applicant desire to substitute outdoor light fixtures or lamps after a permit has been issued, the applicant must submit all changes to the building department for approval, with adequate information to assure compliance with this chapter. (Ord. 03-2005, 9-6-2005)

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